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为什么传粉者很重要,我们需要立即采取行动保护他们吗

新闻来源:admin 发布时间:2018-09-20

It’s been in all the headlines: monarch butterflies are in decline, honey bees are experiencin******ref="https://www。zmescience。com/ecology/insecticide-colonly-collapse-disorder-12052014/" title="Photo credit: USFWS (Adult monarch butterfly by Tina Shaw/USFWS)。">colony collapse disorder (CCD), and our future food supply appears to be in peril。 The importance of preserving pollinators has even reached the White House, as President Obama issued a presidential memo in June 2014 that directed federal agencies to 1) develop a Pollinator Health Task Force, 2) develop a Pollinator Research Action Plan, and 3) require agencies to implement plans to increase and improve pollinator habitat on federal lands。 It is definitely a serious issue!

What are the issues?

Photo credit: USFWS (Adult monarch butterfly by Tina Shaw/USFWS)。
Photo credit: USFWS (Adult monarch butterfly by Tina Shaw/USFWS)。

Monarch butterfl*****ave been declining significantly, reaching the lowest count ever recorded during the 2013-14 migration (USFWS, n。d。)。 The migration route between the U。S。 and Canada, a 3,000 mile journey, has become more challenging because of habitat loss, particularly the loss of milkweed (the species’ only food source), and mortality caused by the use of pesticides。

Pollinators are in decline。 There are many types of pollinators in the environment。 In addition to honey bees, wasps, and butterflies, hummingbirds, bats, ants, beetles, and flies also can pollinate plants。 These species are typically underappreciated, if not feared, by people, leading to a lack of concern for their conservation。 For example, Regan et al。 (2015) noted that 2。5 bird and mammal pollinator species are moving up the IUCN Red List by one category toward extinction every year。

Neonicotinoids, one of the most widely-used pesticides are impacting on non-target species。 Honey bees are exposed to this pesticide because its residue is found in nectar and pollen。 In fact, it persists in the soil and in woody plants for up to six years after it is applied (The Xerces Society, 2014)。 While there is not yet a direct correlation between colony collapse disorder and neonicotinoids, it is likely that honey bees become more susceptible to parasites and pathogens, the sub-lethal effects mentioned in Goulson (2013)。

What’s being done?

EPA recently updated pesticide use labels to include a bee advisory box。 The new advisory box includes a bee image to alert users to take additional precautions and observe any specific restrictions for pesticide use to better protect pollinators。 EPA is also currently conducting a registration review of these products and working with the USDA to conduct additional scientific research (EPA, 2015)。

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